Copyright 2018

Arthur Haswell Flute Repairs

Arthur Haswell


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Rudall Carte was one of the leading manufacturers and suppliers of musical instruments until its showroom and workshop closed in December 1958. Thousands of flutes stamped with their name have survived. Most are band flutes in F, Bb, or Eb; simple-system flutes; or High-Pitch flutes that play at A=452.


We are concerned only with those few top-of-the-range modern-pitch concert flutes that were handcrafted in their workshop at 23 Berners Street, London by some of the greatest-ever flutemakers.


These flutes are rare, sought after, and continue to be played in earnest by flautists who value excellence, sound, and character.  


In the Victorian English-speaking world (apart from the USA) many orchestras and ensembles  played at Old Philharmonic Pitch, around A=452.5 Hz. Then, in 1896, New Philharmonic Pitch of A=439 was introduced (later raised to International Pitch A=440). Carte produced their first flutes at this Low Pitch towards the end of 1903. Orchestras and ensembles were slow to change over. Even by 1920 the majority of Carte concert flutes was still being made at High Pitch.


Players finding their High Pitch Cartes unsuitable generally abandoned them. However, some returned their flutes  to Rudall Carte to have the keywork transplanted on to a new Low Pitch body. These transplants can be every bit as good as original modern-pitch Cartes.  


Nevertheless probably less than a quarter of Carte concert flutes are of practical use today. These are the magical flutes in which we specialise - each unique, with a character all its own.  


The best craftsmen were given the job of making the finest flutes. In most cases not much is known about these flutemakers, yet their names live on in the quality of their work.

   There were Englishmen such as Christopher Holland, Harry West, Edwin Ounsted, Albert Atkins,  Frederick Handke, and the Hindes father and son. Other fine makers were coaxed from the Continent: Henri Schumacher of Strasbourg, Henri Nivarlet, Augustus Kurzendorfer, and Eugene Goulliere. After the Berners Street workshop closed in 1958,  a younger generation of flutemakers that included Harry Seeley, Roger (Angus) Harris, Ewen McDougall, and Albert Cooper continued the tradition either working on their own or in Flutemakers Guild.

RC thinned throughout by Handke

A superb concert flute (above) made in 1958, only months before the closure of the old Rudall Carte workshop in London's West End. It is the work of Fred Handke, then aged 69, and considered by his colleagues to be the the finest of all flutemakers.

Atkins GS

Carte made flutes with cocuswood, ebonite, or silver bodiesd, and with either silver or nickel silver-plated keywork. Although nominally a lower grade nickel-key model, this wonderful cocus flute is the work of Albert Atkins, the chief piccolo maker.  


Maurice Heugen is Principal Flute of the Zürich Opera Orchestra. His Carte was made by Nivarlet in 1908.


I just wanted to tell you that I play frequently on my Rudall Carte flute. In fact this afternoon I shall play Mozart's La Clemenza di Tito on it. I did Beethoven 9 on it, which gave me a real kick! Verdi's Macbeth also worked great on it. The blend with the other wind instruments cannot be equalled even by gold in my experience.





Ian Reynolds studied at the Royal Academy of Music under Gareth Morris, and spent most of his career performing full-time with the Royal Shakespeare Company. Having played a hand-made American silver flute professionally, on retirement in 2015 he bought Rudall Carte 4669 made by Nivarlet in 1911 to reacquaint himself with the wooden flutes on which he was trained.


Evening Arthur

I had to come out of retirement today to play a memorial concert for our former Head of Music, Guy Woolfenden, in the Holy Trinity Church, Stratford. Guy wrote fabulous flute parts and I spent most of the 1970s performing his scores every evening. Holy Trinity is a huge space and although I`ve done lots of concerts there over the years and know the acoustic well I was a bit nervy about how the Rudall Carte would go on its first outing. I also only had a couple of days to practise after eight months off so was not match fit by a long shot.

  Anyway, I`m warming up and our oboist comes in and comes up to me and says that it sounds amazing at the other end of the church, which was a good start. The Nivarlet has a huge voice and is a great flute to really open up on. There is an unfathomable depth to explore and my only regret is that I never had the chance to use it 'on the job' regularly and push it to the limits. My silver flute was all brightness and edge by comparison.

  The orchestra was composed of all of my former friends and colleagues who knew my playing intimately from days of old and everyone was very complimentary about the Nivarlet. They were also struck by how beautiful it looked and what a lineage it must have had – I introduced it by saying that Stravinsky was composing The Rite of Spring and World War I was still three years off when 4669 was made.

    The intonation was spot on and our oboist remarked on how well together everything was.

    I mentioned this before, but the intonation of that flute is what I expect it to be, based on the way Gareth Morris taught me to blow. My silver flute’s scale never seemed so logical and in twenty five years I was never quite as settled on it as I was on 4669 right from the start.

  I`m rambling on a bit but I just wanted you to know that I think that your faith in the old Rudall Carte makers is not misplaced and these instruments are the best out there.

  I once said that 4669 is far and away the best flute I`ve ever played on, and nothing in my first road-test of it today has made me want to change my mind – quite the opposite!  




Ann Unwin plays and teaches in north-east England. She used a modern Japanese flute before falling in love with a Rudall Carte wooden flute made by Atkins. Later she acquired further Cartes by Nivarlet and West, one of them an 1867-Patent system. 

'I was taught at Cardiff University by Roger Armstrong (BBCWelshSO), a remarkably self-effacing gentleman and truly inspirational teacher who taught how to think about playing instead of handing answers on a plate or creating a clone. This invaluable teaching gave me the skills that, many years later, allowed me to be open minded in my approach to the Rudall Cartes.'


Playing a Rudall Carte is a journey of discovery, a seeking out of what the instrument holds. It has made me think about flutes differently. It has opened up possibilities that I didn't even know existed. I find that I need to work with these instruments in a way I never really did on my modern silver flute. I can’t impose my ideas on them, it’s a partnership, and I have to be flexible. The reward comes in subtleties of articulation and tone colour, and a depth and focus of sound that I find hard to replicate on silver.

  My Nivarlet, for instance, is a subtle flute that leaps between registers very nicely and is easy to articulate on. Things that I can’t play well on other flutes (including silver) suddenly seem right and musical on him.

  This acceptance of the instrument’s character has enabled me to revisit technical exercises and studies and enjoy discovering what each of my Rudall Cartes is capable of. I only occasionally play on a modern silver flute now, but when I do it seems to lack soul and depth.

  There’s something special, hard to quantify, about playing an old handmade instrument, the work of a great craftsman. They are beautiful to look at as well as to play. They are not big and brash, but speak with their own voices, and, after you play them for a time a bond develops. So, yes, these Rudall Carte flutes are great – I have learned so much from them!

  At the time it was a big surprise to fall in love with a Rudall Carte, but I have been rewarded with first one flute and then others that are a delight to pick up and are always interesting to play.


art RC thinned to B

All these Rudall Cartes were prepared by and bought from us.


With thanks to Robert Bigio, the acknowledged authority on Rudall Carte & Co., for help and support. Also to Mike MacMahon, player on Carte Boehm and 1867-Patent system flutes, for editing and information on the makers.

One piece thinned body to low B - a special Rudall Carte made by West in 1929.

RC Niv b

For testimonials by Rudall Carte players click HERE.


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This text is copyright 2018 by Arthur Haswell.

I have written it in good faith to inform fellow Carte enthusiasts.

Please do not copy and paste it to a sales advert.